The faith and morals that are taught to us by our Catholic Faith (i.e. through The Catechism of the Catholic Church ) come from what is called the Magisterium. This teaching body is made up of the Pope and all Bishops who are in communion with him (the picture to the left is of Jesus giving Peter, the first pope, the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven - see Mt 16:13-20).
We believe that what we receive from our Church through this Magisterium with regards to FAITH and MORALS is exactly what God has intended for us. It is, for the most part, infallible in these areas. This does not mean that the Pope as a man is flawless, but when he teaches solemnly on those specific subjects, he is.
The Magisterium, especially with the claim of infallibility, is a tough doctrine for many to accept. Nevertheless, it is what the Church teaches about herself. Since this is such a profound claim, it is especially important for us to research it to the best of our abilities. If it is indeed true, then we are very, very lucky to be Catholic, especially if we have a pastor who is true to the Magisterium.
What follows are a few links to get you started on the subject. Please read them to better understand what the Church teaches about herself regarding her Magisterium. I'm sure you’ll find them rewarding and challenging.
Links on the Magisterium/Papacy
Specific Catechism references regarding Peter: 552, 553, 765, 816, 862
Pillar and Bulwark of the Truth: The Infallible Magisterium of the Catholic Church
Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church: scroll down to #182-187
Catholics Come Home - Five answers to five common questions
Catechism of the Catholic Church: see 888-892, 2030-31, 2032-40
Catholic Answers Tracts
Videos on Papal Infallibility